The famous Valpuesta Cartulary possesses extraordinary significance for the history of Spain: Isidoro offers catrulario compendium of 46 pages of eminent characters in Spain and in the north of Africa along the 5th and 6th centuries, mainly bishops and Christian authors, with special attention to those that wrote about heresies. Comentario del Apocalipsis Bishopric of Beja — Entre y — Multiple copies After his name, not at all usual in Spain of those times, Apringio vappuesta to be of cartularik origin. For this reason, the Valpuesta Cartulary not only contains important documents with historical monograms and signatures by some high-ranking personalities, but also a historical sensation with significance for all of Spain! Although the authenticity of some of the texts is disputed,  the cartularies are regarded as significant in the history of the Spanish language, and their status as manuscripts containing the earliest words written in Spanish has been promoted by the Spanish Royal Academy and other institutions, even though the documents are meant to be written in Latin.
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Ruiz Asencio, one of the main researchers, qualifies it as the most complex Castilian cartulary. The first thing which draws our attention is that it is a factitious meeting of several booklets of an independent nature, as well as some loose folios which were bound together, creating a book with them.
It consists of seventeen parchment booklets, with one hundred and seventeen folios, including some fragments of folios and three original loose documents. The size of them is unequal, oscillating between 95xmm in booklet 16 at xmm Booklet 5. On the other hand, some booklets are written in a Visigothic letter twenty-two and other in Carolina twelve. It continued being used until the beginning of the thirteenth century as evidenced by the hand notes on the blank pages.
This structure is what the cartulary had in the thirteenth century, because when it was copied into a new one, the Galician Becerro, in , the documents were copied in the same order as this cartulary. As for the diplomatic typology of the documents which inserts, the most remarkable fact is the scant presence of real documents, which is limited to one of Alfonso II of There are also very few, three only, episcopal documents of the ninth century. On the contrary, private documents abound, among which we find donations, sales, swaps, appointment of guarantors for judicial processes, letters of familiarity, anniversaries, etc.
Among all these documents, the donations "traditio corporis et animae" stand out for their number it was accompanied by donations through which the donors paid the expenses of their burial and those of the persons in charge of praying for the soul of the deceased. Some of which are not copied in full, but only the data of the author and recipient, with the news of the delivery of the body and the description of the donated goods, but lacking a date.
The total number of private documents rises to one hundred sixty-six, excluding those of the monastery of San Pedro and San Pablo de Buezo de Bureba 15 documents , although not all researches share this opinion. Four are from the ninth century, twenty-five, from the X; forty-nine of the eleventh; eighty-seven, of the XII; and, one from the beginning of the 13th century. There are also numerous documents which have no date, fifty-seven, or which present problems for their interpretation, either due to the erroneous use of Roman numerals, due to the mistake in the use of the dating system by kalendas, nonas and idus, or because of the lack of agreement between the day of the month and the day of the week.
Finally, regarding the false documents, the most significant are the two oldest ones in the cartulary year Although today the majority of the researcher defend their falsity, the opinion is not unanimous. Furthermore we must add the donation of Bishop Fredulfo . In the XX century, Louis Barrau-Dihigo made its first modern edition, although he only published the oldest documents, when Valpuesta was bishopric It was described by its most recent editors as "plagiarism".
Fuerthermore, it has errors of translation, but it stand out making accessible to scholars this document with difficult consultation in our libraries. It is preceded by a brief introduction of two pages and indexes at the end. It was Saturnino Ruiz de Loizaga the first who published the documents of the Gothic Cartularaty of Valpuesta from to , not included in the previous editions.
But, in addition, he also did the same with the Galicano Cartulary, publishing in double column the documents of both cartularies. It is preceded by an extensive introductory study where all the problems presented by these cartulars are studied, which we have explained previously. It was published with a careful transcription and exhaustive indexes. The second volume includes a photographic reproduction of the Cartularies. Without a doubt, it is currently the most complete edition we have.
But, in addition, of all these singularities that we have been highlighting, the Gothic Cartulary of Valpuesta has another and maybe the most important: the importance it has for the study of the origins of Castilian. Among their documents appear voices in romance "glosas" which can be considered as one of the oldest testimonies of the Castilian language.
Experts have declared those cartularies contain the firt signs of Spanish language. The "first written spanish" was traditionally considered to have appeared in the "glosas emilianenses".
But in this case the cartularies are written in a Latin Romanceado, in a language which is a mixture between latin and spanish They are written in Latin but including unintentionally phonetics, syntactic and lexical elements which are more typical from Spanish than from Latin. Description Indices:.
Cartularios de Valpuesta: cuando el latín se hizo español
Ruiz Asencio, one of the main researchers, qualifies it as the most complex Castilian cartulary. The first thing which draws our attention is that it is a factitious meeting of several booklets of an independent nature, as well as some loose folios which were bound together, creating a book with them. It consists of seventeen parchment booklets, with one hundred and seventeen folios, including some fragments of folios and three original loose documents. The size of them is unequal, oscillating between 95xmm in booklet 16 at xmm Booklet 5. On the other hand, some booklets are written in a Visigothic letter twenty-two and other in Carolina twelve. It continued being used until the beginning of the thirteenth century as evidenced by the hand notes on the blank pages. This structure is what the cartulary had in the thirteenth century, because when it was copied into a new one, the Galician Becerro, in , the documents were copied in the same order as this cartulary.
Cartularies of Valpuesta
They are housed in the National Archives of Spain. The Cartularies of Valpuesta are a series of 12th-century Visigothic documents which, in turn, are copies of earlier documents, some of which date back to the 9th century. These cartularies contain an abundance of words of a developing Romance dialect and a copious list of place names in the Valley of Gaubea and the surrounding area. Probably no other codex of that period offers so many tokens of an incipient Romance language with similarities with modern Spanish. The scribes did not write in pure, erudite Latin, but rather in a more evolved, Romance-like Latin, to be better understood by the common people. The transcription took place during the formative period of the Kingdom of Castile , and it might reflect the early evolution of the Castilian dialect, although a written standard had yet to be established.
Cartularios de Valpuesta
CARTULARIO DE VALPUESTA PDF