In addition this paper provides the insights and a critical evaluation of the author with respect to the main components of the theory. Another portion of this paper is an application of the said theory in a nurse-patient situation and how this ideology was able to influence the plan of action and the delivery of care to the patient. Faye Glenn Abdellah formulated her structural model with the goal of teaching and evaluating students and at the same time emphasizing the need to create a body of knowledge Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing, It is the belief of this writer that this body of knowledge was made exclusively for the nursing profession with the objective to achieve independence from the control of the medical profession toward patient-centered care and diagnosis.
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Nursing theories are organized bodies of knowledge to define what nursing is, what nurses do, and why do they do it. Nursing theories provide a way to define nursing as a unique discipline that is separate from other disciplines e. It is a framework of concepts and purposes intended to guide the practice of nursing at a more concrete and specific level.
Nursing, as a profession, is committed to recognizing its own unparalleled body of knowledge vital to nursing practice—nursing science.
To distinguish this foundation of knowledge, nurses need to identify, develop, and understand concepts and theories in line with nursing. As a science, nursing is based on the theory of what nursing is, what nurses do, and why. Nursing is a unique discipline and is separate from medicine. It has its own body of knowledge on which delivery of care is based.
Defining Terms Development of nursing theory demands an understanding of selected terminologies, definitions, and assumptions.
Beliefs and values that define a way of thinking and are generally known and understood by a group or discipline. It refers to a logical group of general propositions used as principles of explanation. Theories are also used to describe, predict, or control phenomena. Concepts are often called the building blocks of theories.
They are primarily the vehicles of thought that involve images. Models are representations of the interaction among and between the concepts showing patterns. They present an overview of the thinking behind the theory and may demonstrate how theory can be introduced into practice.
Conceptual framework. A conceptual framework is a group of related ideas, statements, or concepts. It is often used interchangeably with the conceptual model and with grand theories. Propositions are statements that describe the relationship between the concepts.
Domain is the perspective or territory of a profession or discipline. Processes are a series of organized steps, changes or functions intended to bring about the desired result.
A paradigm refers to a pattern of shared understanding and assumptions about reality and the world; worldview or widely accepted value system. A metaparadigm is the most general statement of discipline and functions as a framework in which the more restricted structures of conceptual models develop.
Much of the theoretical work in nursing focused on articulating relationships among four major concepts: person, environment, health, and nursing. History of Nursing Theories The first nursing theories appeared in the late s when a strong emphasis was placed on nursing education.
In , Hildegard Peplau introduced her Theory of Interpersonal Relations that puts emphasis on the nurse -client relationship as the foundation of nursing practice. In , Dorothy Johnson pioneered the Behavioral System Model and upheld the fostering of efficient and effective behavioral functioning in the patient to prevent illness.
In , Martha Rogers viewed nursing as both a science and an art as it provides a way to view the unitary human being, who is integral with the universe. In , Dorothea Orem states in her theory that nursing care is required if the client is unable to fulfill biological, psychological, developmental, or social needs. In , Betty Neuman in her theory states that many needs exist, and each may disrupt client balance or stability. Stress reduction is the goal of the system model of nursing practice.
In , Sr. Callista Roy viewed the individual as a set of interrelated systems who strives to maintain the balance between these various stimuli. In , Jean Watson developed the philosophy of caring highlighted humanistic aspects of nursing as they intertwine with scientific knowledge and nursing practice.
The Nursing Metaparadigm There are four major concepts that are frequently interrelated and fundamental to nursing theory: person, environment, health, and nursing. These four are collectively referred to as metaparadigm for nursing. Person Person also referred to as Client or Human Beings is the recipient of nursing care and may include individuals, patients, groups, families, and communities.
Environment Environment or situation is defined as the internal and external surrounds that affect the client. Health Health is defined as the degree of wellness or well-being that the client experiences.
It may have different meanings for each patient, the clinical setting, and the health care provider. Nursing The attributes, characteristics, and actions of the nurse providing care on behalf of or in conjunction with, the client. There are numerous definitions of nursing, though nursing scholars may have difficulty agreeing on its exact definition, the ultimate goal of nursing theories is to improve patient care.
The person is the main focus but how each theorist defines the nursing metaparadigm gives a unique take specific to a particular theory. To give you an example, below are the different definitions of various theorists on the nursing metaparadigm: An overview of the nursing metaparadigm of different nursing theories. Click to enlarge Components of Nursing Theories For a theory to be a theory it has to contain a set of concepts, definitions, relational statements, and assumptions that explain a phenomenon.
It should also explain how these components relate to each other.
Nursing Theories and Theorists
Nursing care is doing something to or for a patient, or providing information to the patient with the intention of meeting needs, increasing self-ability, or alleviating impairment. In other words,helping patients become more healthy. Abdellah describes health as a state mutually exclusive of illness. In the assessment phase, nursing problems provide guidelines for the collection of data. A principle underlying the problem-solving approach is that for each identified problem, pertinent data is collected. The overt or covert nature of problems necessitates a direct or indirect approach, respectively.
Application to Nursing Practice: Faye Abdellah’s Theory Essay
Nursing care is doing something to or for the person or providing information to the person with the goals of meeting needs, increasing or restoring self-help ability, or alleviating impairment. Nursing is broadly grouped into the 21 problem areas to guide care and promote use of nursing judgment. Nursing to be comprehensive service. Patient is described as the only justification for the existence of nursing. Individuals and families are the recipients of nursing Health, or achieving of it, is the purpose of nursing services. However, as she further delineated her ideas, the focus of nursing service is clearly the individual.