ALEXANDRESCU D PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE PDF

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Imperative[ edit ] Imperative programming in D is almost identical to that in C. Functions, data, statements, declarations and expressions work just as they do in C, and the C runtime library may be accessed directly. Object-oriented[ edit ] Object-oriented programming in D is based on a single inheritance hierarchy, with all classes derived from class Object.

D also allows the defining of static and final non-virtual methods in interfaces. Metaprogramming[ edit ] Metaprogramming is supported by a combination of templates, compile time function execution, tuples , and string mixins. Type inference may be used with an anonymous function, in which case the compiler creates a delegate unless it can prove that an environment pointer is not necessary. Other functional features such as currying and common higher-order functions such as map , filter , and reduce are available through the standard library modules std.

Alternative implementations and methodologies of writing concurrent code are possible. The use of D typing system does help ensure memory safety. Garbage collection can be controlled: programmers may add and exclude memory ranges from being observed by the collector, can disable and enable the collector and force either a generational or full collection cycle.

Functions marked safe are checked at compile time to ensure that they do not use any features that could result in corruption of memory, such as pointer arithmetic and unchecked casts, and any other functions called must also be marked as safe or trusted.

Functions can be marked trusted for the cases where the compiler cannot distinguish between safe use of a feature that is disabled in SafeD and a potential case of memory corruption.

The current mechanisms in place primarily deal with function parameters and stack memory however it is a stated ambition of the leadership of the programming language to provide a more thorough treatment of lifetimes within the D programming language. The Standard Dictates the following behaviour: [20] Storage Class Behaviour and constraints to of a Parameter with the storage class scope references in the parameter cannot be escaped.

Ignored for parameters with no references return Parameter may be returned or copied to the first parameter, but otherwise does not escape from the function. Such copies are required not to outlive the argument s they were derived from.

Ignored for parameters with no references An Annotated Example is given below. D bindings are available for many popular C libraries.

The vtable shall be matched up to single inheritance The only level supported by the D language specification.

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