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The maximum amount of current that could flow through the Collector pin is mA, hence we cannot connect loads that consume more than mA using this transistor. To bias a transistor we have to supply current to base pin, this current IB should be limited to 5mA.
When this transistor is fully biased then it can allow a maximum of mA to flow across the collector and emitter. When base current is removed the transistor becomes fully off, this stage is called as the Cut-off Region and the Base Emitter voltage could be around mV.
BC Transistor as switch When a transistor is used as a switch it is operated in the Saturation and Cut-Off Region as explained above. As discussed a transistor will act as an Open switch during Forward Bias and as a Closed switch during Reverse Bias, this biasing can be achieved by supplying the required amount of current to the base pin.
As mentioned the biasing current should maximum of 5mA. Anything more than 5mA will kill the Transistor; hence a resistor is always added in series with base pin.
The value of this resistor RB can be calculated using below formulae. The value of IB should not exceed mA. It can amplify power, voltage and current at different configurations. Some of the configurations used in amplifier circuits are Common emitter amplifier Common collector amplifier Common base amplifier Of the above types common emitter type is the popular and mostly used configuration. Amplifier modules like Audio amplifiers, signal Amplifier etc..
Darlington pair 2D model of the component If you are designing a PCD or Perf board with this component then the following picture from the BC Datasheet will be useful to know its package type and dimensions.
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