CODESA NEGOTIATIONS PDF

The first half of was characterized by various instances of violence, happening amidst negotiations. An all-white-referendum in March over the continuation of negotiations was to be a notable feature. Working Group activity continued up until the plenary of Codesa 2 on 15 May. Sticking points in the working groups were to eventually spill into the plenary. Particular disagreements revolved around Working Group 2 and 3, dealing with constitutional principles and an interim government respectively. Particularly important was the disagreement over the percentage needed to pass the final constitution, the issue of a second chamber of parliament, and the scope of regional powers.

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The PAC believed that negotiations should be held outside the country under the stewardship of a neutral party, such as the United Nations or the Organisation of African Unity. Issues After the negotiating parties had agreed and signed the declaration of intent, five working groups were elected to deal with specific issues.

These groups were mandated to investigate the establishment of: The new constitution The setting up of the interim government The future of the homelands Time period for the implementation of the changes The electoral system Structure A working group made up of two representatives and two advisors from each negotiating party was established and a Management Committee set up of one delegate and one advisor from each of the parties.

The Management Committee was assisted by Fanie van der Merwe and Mac Maharaj , who were appointed as the secretariats. It was agreed that the next session would begin in March Although most politicians had a mandate and support from their constituencies for talks towards democracy, this was not so for the National Party camp. The increasing nervousness among NP members forced De Klerk to use the opening of parliament on February 2, to reassure his colleagues that the NP still held power.

He went on to say that no official agreement had been made to change the governance of the country. This did little to stop his critics who accused him of acting without a mandate. He responded by saying he was willing to prove he had the confidence and backing of his supporters and especially Afrikaners through a white referendum. Last white only referendum held on March 17, There were two sticky areas viz.

There were also disagreements on the restructuring of the SABC. The ANC felt that a neutral broadcasting body was required to provide fair coverage of the political developments and negotiation process leading up to elections. The SABC could not be trusted to do this with its history of bias and propaganda and links with government. Most significant are the issues that could not be resolved by the working groups during the discussions.

However even then the parties failed to reach a consensus on two major issues, that is, the interim government and the constitutions.

As a result, the Management Committee declared a deadlock on these issues. The ANC proposed an interim government that would last for no more than eighteen months and would have a cabinet representing various parties. The ANC rejected this proposal. The ANC maintained that minority parties could become part of decision-making through a cabinet decision. Working Group 2, which was tasked with the formulation of a new constitution, had to propose a constitution-making body and the core principles for a constitution.

It was agreed South Africa would have a non-racial, non-sexist and democratic government. However, there was a debate on the percentage required for the constituent assembly to take decisions. The NP proposed that a 70 percent majority be required for the constituent assembly to take decisions and 75 percent for decisions relating to the constitution such as the bill of rights. The ANC proposed its alternate for a After consultation with the Patriotic Front the ANC raised its figures to 70 percent on decisions relating to the constitution and 75 percent for the bill of rights.

The NP rejected this proposal and so negotiations deadlocked. Mandela and De Klerk once again made attempts to meet. The collapse of CODESA had unleashed political uncertainty and violence making it imperative to resume negotiations urgently. WE AGREE that the present and future participants shall be entitled to put forward freely to the Convention any proposal consistent with democracy. We, the representatives of political parties, political organisations and administrations, further solemnly commit ourselves to be bound by the agreements of CODESA and in good faith to take all such steps as are within our power and authority to realise implementation.

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Negotiations to end apartheid in South Africa

The PAC believed that negotiations should be held outside the country under the stewardship of a neutral party, such as the United Nations or the Organisation of African Unity. Issues After the negotiating parties had agreed and signed the declaration of intent, five working groups were elected to deal with specific issues. These groups were mandated to investigate the establishment of: The new constitution The setting up of the interim government The future of the homelands Time period for the implementation of the changes The electoral system Structure A working group made up of two representatives and two advisors from each negotiating party was established and a Management Committee set up of one delegate and one advisor from each of the parties. The Management Committee was assisted by Fanie van der Merwe and Mac Maharaj , who were appointed as the secretariats. It was agreed that the next session would begin in March Although most politicians had a mandate and support from their constituencies for talks towards democracy, this was not so for the National Party camp.

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The O’Malley Archives

Afterwards an Addendum was added. By way of this solemn agreement the subscribing parties committed themselves to bringing about a democratic South Africa with a new constitution. All Parties were represented in each of the Working Groups. The terms of reference can be summarised as follows: 3. It was also required to make recommendations on the role that the International Community could play in the period leading up to the introduction of a new constitution. The full terms of reference of Working Group 1 appear on pages 3. The full terms of reference of Working Group 2 appears on pages 3.

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Main articles: South Africa under apartheid and Internal resistance to apartheid Apartheid was a system of racial discrimination and segregation in South African government. It was formalised in , forming a framework for political and economic dominance by the white population and severely restricting the political rights of the black majority. Between and , the African National Congress and other mainly black opposition political organisations were banned. As the National Party cracked down on black opposition to apartheid, most leaders of ANC and other opposition organisations were either killed, imprisoned or went into exile. However, increasing local and international pressure on the government, as well as the realisation that apartheid could neither be maintained by force forever nor overthrown by the opposition without considerable suffering, eventually led both sides to the negotiating table.

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Ebrahim notes that it is generally accepted that the latter view is the most accurate. Therefore, this article uses an artificial division between Codesa 1 and Codesa 2. Codesa 1 was the first sitting of a formal multiparty negotiation forum to negotiate the principles of a new constitution and the composition of an interim or transitional power to manage the transitional period. It dealt with substantive matters rather than merely eliminating obstacles to negotiation. Two important issues for the convention were constitutional principles for a new constitution and an interim power, as well as the lead up to a constituent assembly which would write up the final constitution. Codesa 1 generated hope but also took place in a period marked by uncertainty, mass action and increasing violence, violence involving the government and the security forces, the African National Congress ANC , and the Inkatha Freedom Party IFP.

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