CONSTRUCTING LANDSCAPE ASTRID ZIMMERMANN PDF

About this title Constructing Landscape is a systematic introduction to technical and constructional open space planning, with all the relevant topics, from the most common materials and surfaces to the construction of open space elements and the use of plants. For landscape architects and architects it is an indispensable guide to correct and professional execution planning as well as to preparing solid and well-thought-out requests for proposal. The first section provides an overview of the various building materials of landscape architecture and their specific characteristics. It also explains the qualities of surfaces and the different approaches to treating them. The second section begins with an introductory chapter explaining the principles of statics, the connections of load-bearing elements, and the various approaches to anchoring building compo-nents and supporting structures. The subsequent chapters use drawings and text to present the constructional principles and techniques associated with the various building elements.

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Only meticulous handling of these details can ensure that the quality of the design is preserved in the completed object. The basis for the—enduring—success of a construction scheme is therefore a respect for the properties of the materials used, as well as a construction method suitable for the materials and function. This publication is aimed at anyone who is concerned with creating outdoor facilities and is looking for an introduction to technical and constructive planning.

This handbook gives a basic overview of materials, construction methods, and vegetation techniques used in urban-context planning. The individual sections can be combined in a modular fashion. The first part outlines materials used out of doors, presenting their basic properties as well as their surface qualities, application possibilities and products. The second part is concerned with fundamental questions of structural engineering. The first chapter discusses the rules governing structural engineering.

The following chapters are concerned with joints in loadbearing construction elements, soil mechanics and the different types of foundation. The third part describes how and with what elements outdoor complexes are built. Besides small structures such as walls, fences, steps or pools, this includes paved and non-paved surfaces. In addition, drainage and various aspects of vegetation techniques are important.

As well as the basics of the subject and in-depth rules, various types of construction are presented— with the aid of specimen projects with construction methods that go beyond the standard details and expand the field of application. Plants as a construction material are a central theme in landscape architecture. Further information can be found in the chapters on vegetation techniques Chapters 3. It is impossible to do justice to the complexity of this field, particularly that of growth forms and areas of use for plants, within this publication.

Given the background of very different site factors created by the climatic and soil-specific peculiarities of each region, readers are referred to the appropriate subject literature. Where an overview of the most important plant species is possible and appears justified, constructive chapters are supplemented with plant tables.

In order to make general statements, the scope of information contained in this publication is restricted to the Central European area. However, many of the construction methods can be used in other regions or adapted with only minor changes. These are the basis for the technical codes of practice quoted in this publication. In areas with non-uniform regulation, national standards or guidelines are listed instead.

A countryspecific inspection must take place in each individual case. The literature and reference lists at the end of each chapter may help the reader with this research. The national editions of the EU standards, which partly consist of the supplementary regulations, are also recommended.

The FLL regulatory publications, established as the standard set of rules in Germany, are listed in some chapters, even if applying them is not compulsory outside Germany. The information they contain reflects the current state of science and practical experience. Outside Germany, they can therefore be considered as guidelines or recommendations. Constructing Landscape is conceived as a reference work on the subject of construction in landscape architecture, intended to accompany the design process from the draft stage to the best possible structural and technical solution, and provide helpful information to support this development.

As well as the necessary basic technical knowledge, it is therefore also intended to provide inspiration and encouragement for constructive planning. As guidance for further research, the appendix of this publication contains lists of literature, standards and guidelines plus further information on each theme divided according to the relevant chapter.

There is also a summary of literature for all chapters. In each case, interest is focused on a mutual process: landscape and its qualities dictate the general conditions while construction, itself determined by the characteristic properties of building components, offers a response.

But detail can refer in particular to single feature, or a more precise excerpt from a greater whole, often an enlarged image. Anyone getting involved in construction should be in love with detail. This propensity—often wrongly confused with pettiness—is greatly needed because it acts as a motor for new and further developments. Arts pages make a clear distinction between people who solve puzzles and thinkers—allowing only the latter to be carefree—but developing detail needs passionate solvers of brainteasers in the best sense of the word, people whose obsessive attitude enables them to work innovatively.

A consistent approach to working through from a first draft to the detail is helpful and desirable. But if you find yourself behaving with remorseless rigor and getting mercilessly entrapped in detail at the planning stage, the best response is to season the game with a pinch of humor and juggle your own ideas around a bit.

Comfort has always been a motor for structural development, and it is becoming even more important. Is it likely to be very different for open space as a consumer product? What can be observed is a regular transfer of elements and materials: indoors, outdoors and back. But the choice of materials and construction is also affected by the zeitgeist and the fashion trends it generates.

All other materials start to age once the project is complete, but plants achieve their full effect only in the course of time. Vegetation has an inherent dynamic. For one thing, plants reflect the cycle of the seasons, as they shoot, blossom and take on their fall colors, and for another, they go through life phases from youth to age. This can mean a vegetation period of up to several centuries, according to growth form. Integrating this dynamism effectively and working creatively with it is a sign of successful planning.

This chapter discusses the plant groups available to landscape architecture as material: woody plants, herbaceous plants, bulbs and corms, and seasonal plants. They are categorized according to growth forms and botanical criteria. A short introduction lists the requirements and possible uses for each group, and also the characteristic qualities that each plant displays. As the qualities of plants, being living material, are strongly influenced by the soil and climate of their situation, recommendations and empirical values are transferable to other countries only to a limited extent.

There are considerable differences between the horticultural traditions of the individual European countries, defined by different climatic and socio-cultural conditions. This shows very clearly in the range of species used. Different sets of rules have to be applied against this background.

This chapter introduces the most important topics, focusing principally on the use of woody plants in urban public parks and green areas. The chapters on water features, greening buildings and planting roofs also give tips on plant use for these specific situations. In addition to this, positive qualities of the stock, for example stronger stem or root formation, will also be transferred. In present-day tree nursery practice, seed, young plants, seedlings and fully grown plants are traded throughout Europe.

But as the origins of the seed, the soil and climate in the place where it is produced affect the later use of a plant, care should be taken that those conditions coincide with the new location as far as possible. Plants whose seeds or seedlings are produced in milder regions survive less well than those adapted to the situation. These problems become all the more acute the harsher the climate is in the new location.

The consequence is a greater failure rate than for new planting, reduced vitality and increased susceptibility to pests. The principal limiting factors are severe frost, long periods of frost and summer drought. Plants are offered with different root qualities. They are comparatively reasonable in price. They take root without difficulty, grow rapidly in the first year and adapt well to conditions in their new location. The only disadvantage is that young woody plants often need three to five years to give any sense of spread.

The planting period is also limited to the very short dormant season. Rooted plants cannot be dug up and offered for sale until the leaves start to drop in fall. Root ball goods are bred by regular replanting. This makes the plant form a compact, dense root ball, the only form in which relatively large woody plants can be replanted. The older the plant, the more slowly it will bed in and form new shoots.

One problem is that the soil in root balls can differ considerably from the new location e. Smaller root balls are cloth-wrapped, and larger ones contained in wire mesh. Compared with bare-root goods, the planting time for root ball goods is about 2 to 4 weeks longer, in spring and autumn.

The parent plants are heterozygous so their progeny can be very diverse. Cultivated herbaceous and woody varieties are thus bred vegetatively in horticulture, in order to preserve the qualities and genetic characteristics of the mother plant.

Vegetative breeding methods include grafting and cuttings, separation and root cuttings. In grafting, a shoot or bud of the desired cultivar is attached to another type, the stock, which Plants can also be grown exclusively in pots and containers, which means that they can be planted almost all year round. For woody plants, the volume of the container in liters is given as well as the size. The pot is the standard form for herbaceous plants.

Normally a peat-based substrate is used. As humus-rich peat balls are usually very different from the mineral soil at the new location, this can impede the water supply and rooting. Substrates made of other raw materials have been introduced, but are not very widely used.

The best time to plant most woody and herbaceous varieties is the early fall. Thus, freshly set plants form a well-established root system in order to be able to survive the dryer summer months in the following year. Spring planting makes sense for particularly heavy soils or for varieties that are not reliably frost-resistant.

Trees are characterized by apical growth, i. Shrubs grow from the rhizome and usually develop large numbers of shoots. Because of their size, both groups are suitable for creating threedimensional structures. These can be point structures solitaire tree , cover and area grove, group of woody plants or linear avenue, hedge , and grow freely or be trimmed with varying degrees of severity.

There are three basic types of root system that develop in deep soil: tap root systems grow deep into the soil, vertically, and have a markedly thicker main root; heart root systems have several roots that grow more or less vertically down into the soil; and horizontal root systems with roots that run mainly diagonally to horizontally.

Grade and quality criteria Woody plants are offered in various sizes, called grades. Quality standards define the grades, and the appropriate minimum sizes. Trees and shrubs should have a shape that is typical for their species and age. For example, a young tree will naturally have a somewhat narrower crown, while a solitaire tree of the same species that has been cultivated for longer in the tree nursery and planted well away from its neighbors should have a somewhat more extensive crown.

Relative age shows above all in the position of the shoots. Young trees grow vigorously and their shoots are positioned at a very steep angle.

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EN 1366-4 PDF

Constructing Landscape: Materials, Techniques, Structural Components

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