Zulkigar Europe— Politics and government. After the burning of the papal bull issued to excommunicate the eastern church at Constantinople inthe division between the eastern Orthodox church and the western Roman church finally became permanent. Charlemagne used the church as a europ against the aristocracy. Constantinople, founded on the bridge between Eudope and East, was simply the New Rome, or the Second Rome, and its cit- izens called themselves Romans.
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Zulkigar Europe— Politics and government. After the burning of the papal bull issued to excommunicate the eastern church at Constantinople inthe division between the eastern Orthodox church and the western Roman church finally became permanent.
Charlemagne used the church as a europ against the aristocracy. Constantinople, founded on the bridge between Eudope and East, was simply the New Rome, or the Second Rome, and its cit- izens called themselves Romans.
The crusades were able to take advantage of a period of crisis in the Islamic world in the tenth century when the Abbasid dynasty was overthrown by the Buyids. The German empire — an alliance of princes and counts under oaths of allegiance to the suzerainty of an elected emperor — was sufficiently large to be able knventing claim to be Europe, though what it in effect engendered was a generic form of Mitteleuropa.
I have drawn on the existing historiography in order to illustrate a theoreti- cally based argument with critical intent. Europe is as much an idea as it is a reality, but it is also a contested idea and it was in adversity that European identity was constructed gerarx a dichotomy of Self and Other.
We uerope conclude that by the tenth cen- tury the idea of Europe had evolved from a mere geographical expression to a cultural idea which had political uses but which had not yet stabilised to be the basis of a specifically European identity. The attempt to enforce orthodoxy at the Council of Chalccdon in 45 1 prepared the ground for future secession. From the early third century the notion of a Christian age had been established as the basis of historical chronology, while Islam established its own system of dating after the death of Muhammad in Gerare.
Preview — Inventing Europe by Gerard Delanty. It is possible that this feud eyrope the terms of reference for the conflict of Europe and Asia in later centuries. The spreading of Christianity was not only halted but was put on the defensive; and within Europe itself a wedge had been driven between the Latin west and the Greek cast. Moreover, the history of Europe is the history not only of its unifying ideas, but also of its divisions and frontiers, both inter- nal and external.
The formation of a European identity was never a predetermined. In they defeated the Arabs in a major battle and, until the rise of the Seljuq dynasty in the mid-eleventh century, they pursued an offensive policy which held the Arabs at bay Obolcnsky,p. In this movement the idea of Europe supplanted Christendom as the cultural frame of reference for new processes of identi- ty formation and the rise of new centres of power.
The encounter of Roman civilisation with the Orient did not always amount to the same clash of cultures that resulted when the Romans annexed Europe north of the Alps. Europe in delamty Age of Modernity 65 6.
The shift to the north-west from the south-east was largely associated with the movements of the Germanic tribes. According to Hayp. Pope Pius II frequently used the word Europe in the context of the Islamic advance, though the traditional notion geradr Christendom was more fre- The Westernisation of Europe 37 quently employed, and we find such expressions commonplace in the lan- guage of diplomacy: With the collapse of the Carolingian empire — which in fact was more of an international order than a Frankist one — in the late ninth century, the Germans were able to take advantage of the political vacuum that emerged.
The reforms that were carried out by the 26 Inventing Europe The Origins of the Idea of Europe 27 emperors Diocletian and Constantine enabled only the eastern part of the Roman Empire, the Byzantine empire, to survive.
A Theoretical Introduction I 2. This was to prove eyrope enduring distinc- The Origins of the Idea of Europe 19 tion and still remains one gerrard the geographical definitions of Europe.
In this period many travellers had set forth to China from where many cultural and aesthetic influences came to Europe Wittkowcr,pp. In the ninth century the Vikings pressed southwards, the Magyars advanced from the cast and the Muslims from the south. It must, however, be recog- nised that even these enlightened traditions are not specifically European but transcend the specificity of cultural traditions.
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