EAGC COURSE BOOK ON COLPOSCOPY PDF

Preface and history Worldwide cervical cancer remains a scourge. It is the second commonest cancer affecting women. It is impossible to put a figure on the actual number of cases since accurate diagnosis and registration are neither available nor indeed possible in many countries. It is estimated, however, that at least , women are so afflicted annually. At least 9 out of 10 of these are women in the developing world. Women in the developed world are protected to a greater or lesser extent by screening programmes aimed at detecting pre-cancerous changes.

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Indications [ edit ] There is no consensus on who should get an anal Pap smear. The cells collected by the brush or rod are smeared onto a glass slide, air-dried, and sealed with an adhesive. Many medical offices prefer to suspend the collected cells in a liquid medium; the suspension is then processed in a laboratory before being plated on a glass slide.

The specimen is sent to a pathologist, indicating the source of the smear anal canal. The liquid in which the cells are suspended can also be used for HPV typing. It can be performed quickly, as a vaginal speculum or anoscope is not required. There are currently no agreed algorithms for the investigation of abnormal anal Pap smear results.

HRA allows microscopic visualization and biopsy of potentially abnormal areas. Treatment decisions are then made on the basis of the biopsy results. A person might be referred to a colorectal surgeon, an infectious disease doctor, or a physician trained in colposcopy, examination, or biopsy of this region. At a minimum, a digital rectal exam is performed. A proctoscopic exam might follow. Ultimately, a biopsy might be performed, with or without the aid of a colposcope, [11] a dermatoscope, or high-resolution anoscopy.

May—June Palefsky, Joel M. January Goldie, Sue J. June The American Journal of Medicine. Journal of the American Medical Association. London: NAM Publications. Archived from the original on 5 June Retrieved

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