Arashakar The agreement between the characters found in the Manuscript and the order of the days as found in the Maya calendar is also a strong docujento that Landa was correct in the characters assigned and in the order of the days as he has given them. The two parts I presume are made to correspond with the two sides of the original ; the title page being at the end of one side and forming the page on the first fold. Leonce Angrand, is extremely accurate. He asserts, while writing his documsnto in Spain inthat: His book, too, is extremely scarce, and I have never seen a copy; but I have copious extracts from it, made by the late Dr. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. The reference which I find in Lizana to the Maya writings is as follows: We learn from the figures in the Manuscript that the cross in some of its forms was in use among this people as a religious emblem, and also that the bird was in some cases brought into connection with it, as at Palenque.
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Mujar This year was counted toward the east of the wheel and began on the 4th Kan. The above words show clearly that the natives did not in their method of writing analyze a word to its primitive phonetic elements.
As Plate XXVII relates obviously to the same gen- eral subject, I select the left-hand day column of its upper division as our next example. It is very probable this was the date of some notable event in the history of that people, and as it gives when corrected the year1 am of the opinion it relates to the destruction of Mayapan, which, according to the manuscript translated by Stephens, occurred in the 8th Ahau.
The codex is stylistically uniform, leading Coe and Kerr to suggest that it was the work of a single scribe.
Assuming 11 to be the missing one, the numbers of the days will then be 11, 9, 7, 5, 3. On page II Tro. We see by reference to the annexed table of years XXIIIwhich contains exactly one cycle, that by commencing at the bottom of the right- hand or Ix column and yroano up, we find the numbers given in the quo- tation and in precisely the same order. The first column is therefore the one to be used for all the Cauac years; the second for all the Kan years; the third for all the Muluc years, and the fourth for all the Ix years.
Some native books were obtained, however, probably from the Mayas, and were sent to Spain, where they were seen by the historian Peter Martyr. It was employed for a variety of purposes, prominent among which was the preservation of their history and calendar. If we adopt the division shown in Table XVIII, and suppose the numbering to correspond with the first year Cauac of each period, we would then commence the grand cycle with the Xlllth Ahau.
Suppose that at the close of an annual feast of Uayeh haab which has ended on Ezanab, an Indian was desirous of determining what year of the cycle had just termi- nated. If we suppose the Ahau to contain twenty-four years, and the periods marked on Table X to omit two years at the commencement and two at the close ; in other words, extend the upper and lower lines bounding the groups, across the table, we will then have no difficulty in making all the periods agree with each other and with the cycles.
The five intercalated days were named in regular order following the last of Cumhu, and in this case would be Kan, Chicchan, Cimi, Manik, and Lamat.
Codice jeroglifico Troano-americano Efforts at interpretation xxxiv Chapter I. It was published inin the Transactions of the Docukento Philosophical Society. This number carries us back to the year orthe last of the Xth or first of the Vlllth Ahau.
The taking of life, apparently of a slave, is indicated docimento one place, but whether as a sacrificial offering is uncertain. It is probable that it was sometimes so applied on account of their impor- tance, but a careful study of the language of Landa and CoguUudo lead me to believe that Katun was the name by which they were usually desig- nated. Yroano is an archaic future from hul; this form in om is mentioned by Buenaventura, Arte de la Lengua Mayajand is frequent in the sacred language, but does not occur elsewhere.
The year always commenced with the sfone month — Pop — the others invariably following in the order given, so that the number of the month being given we know its name. XXXlil the leaves of the maguey plant, such as that in common use in Mexico. Referring to our table we will first take the Ahau of the Cauac column, which is in the second transverse line; the 13 in 1 The reader can readily see from the table why any day found in the first, second, third ffoitrth, or fifth month will be fonnd twice in the year.
Another prominent feature is the great number of numeral characters — dots and short straight lines. Ajpula died on the 18th day of the month Zip on the 9th Ymix. Madrid Codex Maya But the growing interest in the public mind in reference to all that relates to the past history of our continent has induced me to present it in its present incomplete form rather than defer its publication to an indefinite period in the future. Cib, Lamat, and Ahau, as shown by those not obliterated, the years would be as follows: On almost every page are to be found columns of characters agreeing precisely with those given by fl as representing the Maya days.
If I am correct in my interpretation documentl the numerals, then the groups of years obtained by using these, as heretofore shown, will necessa- rily require twenty-four yeai-s to the Ahau, no matter with which of the four year-bearing days we begin the troqno for, although rtoano groups con- tain but twenty ell there is an interval of four years between each two ep is not counted.
To be sure, those in the christianized districts had been destroyed, wherever the priests could lay their hands on them; but in the southern part of the peninsula, on the islands of Lake Peten and adjoining territory, the powerful chief, Canek, ruled a large independent tribe of Itzas. The representations familiar among the North American Indians are usually mere pictures, while most of the records of the Aztec communities are hroano picture-writing.
Now, let us hunt out, by the use of our condensed calendar, the yeai-s on which these several dates fall. It is a primary question in American archaeology.
Maya Art and Architecture. That, although the movement of the figures is from the right to the left, and the plates should be taken in this way, at least by pairs, yet, ds a general rule, the characters are in columns, to be read from the top down- wards, columns following each other from left to right; that when they are in lines they are to be read from left to right and by lines from the top downwards, but that lines are used only where it is not convenient to place the characters in columns.
The year following, a second expedition, under Juan de Grijalva, visited a number of points between the island of Cozumel and the Bahia de Terminos. This is true no matter where we com- mence dividing the grand cycle, according to his idea. But I am relieved of expressing an opinion as to his success by his own statement in a later work, that he had, by mistake, commenced at the end of the Codex instead of its beginning; that he had read the lines from right to left, when he should have read them from left to right; and that his translations were not intended for more than mere experiments.
First, that before the Span- iards came they made use of characters and letters, with which they wrote out their histories, their ceremonies, the order of sacrifices to their idols, and their calendars, in books made of the bark of a certain tree. This alone is sufficient to cause us to suspect a reversal. I numbered according to this system, following it with a table No.
The second part was published shortly afterward, but the third part not till some years later. In ordinary cases this would be sufficient to arouse our suspicions as to its genuineness, but in this case the work itself is sufficient to dispel all such suspicions, a fact which will become apparent to the reader before reaching the end of the present paper.
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Shaktira If the year began with Kan, the last day of the eighteenth month — Cumhu — would, as a matter of course, be Akbal, the last of the twenty. We thus ascertain that the years are 6 Cauac, 4 Kan, 9 Muluc, and 1 Ix. It has thirty-nine leaves, thirty-five of which are colored and inscribed on both sides, and four on one side only, so that there are only seventy-four pages of matter. This is true no matter where we com- mence dividing the grand cycle, according to his idea. The Codex was made from a long strip of amate paper that was folded up accordion-style.
Arashim Altogether, his work ranks as the most thorough and fruitful which has heretofore been done in this field. But let me here warn such reader against a too hasty conclusion. Manuscript Troano Finally, in 1the whole was very admirably chromo-photographed by A. This question is as yet unanswered.
Shakazilkree Documentoo is very probable this was the date of some notable event in the history of that people, and as it gives when corrected the year1 am of the opinion troanno relates to the destruction of Mayapan, which, according to the manuscript translated by Stephens, occurred in the 8th Ahau. These groups, each consisting of twenty years, not only fall within the lines marking the Katunes, but come in regular succession, leaving four uncounted years between each two periods — two belonging to one and two to that which follows. Harrison Allen, professor of comparative anatomy in the University of Pennsylvania. Archived from the original PDF on If I have succeeded in making this complicated system thus far intel- ligible to the reader, I may hope to succeed in conveying a correct idea of what is to follow. According to the statement in the Perez manuscript already quoted, Chief Ajpula died in the 13th Ahau in the year 4 Kan, and there were six years wanting to complete this Ahau.