KALIDASA KUMARASAMBHAVA PDF

Early life[ edit ] Scholars have speculated that Kalidasa may have lived near the Himalayas , in the vicinity of Ujjain , and in Kalinga. Lakshmi Dhar Kalla — , a Sanskrit scholar and a Kashmiri Pandit , wrote a book titled The birth-place of Kalidasa , which tries to trace the birthplace of Kalidasa based on his writings. He concluded that Kalidasa was born in Kashmir , but moved southwards, and sought the patronage of local rulers to prosper. Description of geographical features common to Kashmir, such as tarns and glades Mention of some sites of minor importance that, according to Kalla, can be identified with places in Kashmir.

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His poems suggest but nowhere declare that he was a Brahman priest , liberal yet committed to the orthodox Hindu worldview. A Sinhalese tradition says that he died on the island of Sri Lanka during the reign of Kumaradasa, who ascended the throne in Unfortunately, there are several known Vikramadityas Sun of Valour—a common royal appellation ; likewise, the nine distinguished courtiers could not have been contemporaries.

It is certain only that the poet lived sometime between the reign of Agnimitra, the second Shunga king c. He is apparently imitated, though not named, in the Mandasor inscription of No single hypothesis accounts for all the discordant information and conjecture surrounding this date. An opinion accepted by many—but not all—scholars is that Kalidasa should be associated with Chandra Gupta II reigned c.

The most convincing but most conjectural rationale for relating Kalidasa to the brilliant Gupta dynasty is simply the character of his work, which appears as both the perfect reflection and the most thorough statement of the cultural values of that serene and sophisticated aristocracy.

Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. His works are judged by the Indian tradition as realizations of literary qualities inherent in the Sanskrit language and its supporting culture. Kalidasa has become the archetype for Sanskrit literary composition. In drama , his Abhijnanashakuntala is the most famous and is usually judged the best Indian literary effort of any period.

Taken from an epic legend, the work tells of the seduction of the nymph Shakuntala by King Dushyanta, his rejection of the girl and his child, and their subsequent reunion in heaven.

Kalidasa remakes the story into a love idyll whose characters represent a pristine aristocratic ideal: the girl, sentimental, selfless, alive to little but the delicacies of nature, and the king, first servant of the dharma religious and social law and duties , protector of the social order, resolute hero, yet tender and suffering agonies over his lost love.

The second drama, Vikramorvashi possibly a pun on vikramaditya , tells a legend as old as the Vedas earliest Hindu scriptures , though very differently.

The scene was intended in part to be sung or danced. The play unique in this respect contains datable references, the historicity of which have been much discussed. Examples of the epic are the two long poems Raghuvamsha and Kumarasambhava. These stories are mere pretext for the poet to enchain stanzas, each metrically and grammatically complete, redounding with complex and reposeful imagery.

Kalidasa has perhaps done more than any other writer to wed the older, Brahmanic religious tradition, particularly its ritual concern with Sanskrit, to the needs of a new and brilliant secular Hinduism.

The fusion, which epitomizes the renaissance of the Gupta period, did not, however, survive its fragile social base; with the disorders following the collapse of the Gupta Empire, Kalidasa became a memory of perfection that neither Sanskrit nor the Indian aristocracy would know again.

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Kumarasambhava of Kalidasa

His poems suggest but nowhere declare that he was a Brahman priest , liberal yet committed to the orthodox Hindu worldview. A Sinhalese tradition says that he died on the island of Sri Lanka during the reign of Kumaradasa, who ascended the throne in Unfortunately, there are several known Vikramadityas Sun of Valour—a common royal appellation ; likewise, the nine distinguished courtiers could not have been contemporaries. It is certain only that the poet lived sometime between the reign of Agnimitra, the second Shunga king c. He is apparently imitated, though not named, in the Mandasor inscription of No single hypothesis accounts for all the discordant information and conjecture surrounding this date. An opinion accepted by many—but not all—scholars is that Kalidasa should be associated with Chandra Gupta II reigned c.

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