Maushicage In the 6 th century BC, Hippocrates carried out the first postmortem ventricle access by needle in a case of hydrocephalus. It is present throughout the ventricular system except for the cerebral aqueductfrontal horn of the lateral ventricle, and occipital horn of the lateral ventricle. Many thanks for the sharing. He discovered the foramen Magendie, the opening in the roof of the fourth ventricle, but mistakenly believed that CSF was secreted by the pia mater. He was responsible for the creation of a subspecialty on CSF in that medical school.

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Outras fontes consultadas foram livros. O valor mais elevado de lactato encontrado foi observado por Almeida et al.

Comar et al. Diferentes sensibilidades e especificidades foram reportadas pelo uso de diferentes valores de cut-off de acordo com a variabilidade de metodologias e projetos de estudo.

Apenas Comar et al. Abstract The cerebrospinal fluid CSF is a colorless liquid that circulates the brain and spinal cord through the subarachnoid space, cerebral ventricles and the central canal of the spinal cord. The CSF examination provides important information regarding the etiological diagnosis and monitoring of inflammatory, infectious or neoplastic organs that are involved in this liquid.

The examination shall include an analysis of the physical, biochemical and cytological CSF. Setting the ranges of reference is a challenging task for all clinical laboratories, being essential for laboratories provide reliable information that clinicians can correctly interpret the results and choose the best approach towards the assisted population.

Were tabulated values of biochemical tests for glucose, protein, lactate, LDH, ADA, and cytology of leukocytes and erythrocytes. The studies covered in this review showed that there is still no standardization of reference values for CSF examination. Nevertheless, the studies did not show a wide variance in these values. Panatto APR. J Bras Patol Med Lab. Estud Biol. Philadelphia: Saunders, Laboratorial diagnosis of lymphocytic meningitis.

Braz J Infect Dis. Cerebrospinal fluid. J Emerg Med. Relationship between cerebrospinal fluid glucose and serum glucose. N Engl J Med. Urinalysis and body fluids. Philadelphia: F. Davis Company, Quimica clinica. Buenos Aires: Medica Panamericana, Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan S. Cerebrospinal fluid protein concentrations in children: age-related values in patients without disorders of the central nervous system.

Clin Chem. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Am Fam Physician. Acta Pediatr Port. Maciel EP. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. Koneski JAS. Guidelines on routine cerebrospinal fluid analysis.

Report from an EFNS task force. Eur J Neurol. Cerebrospinal fluid lactate concentration to distinguish bacterial from aseptic meningitis: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care. Identifying traumatic brain injury in patients with isolated head trauma: are arterial lactate and base deficit as helpful as in polytrauma? Emerg Med J. Usefulness of lactate dehydrogenase and its isoenzymes as indicators of lung damage or inflammation.

Eur Respir J. Arch Dis Child. Motta VT. Rio de Janeiro: Medbook, , p. Optimization of adenosine deaminase assay by response surface methodology. Clin Chim Acta. Rev Bras Neurol. Comparative analysis of cerebrospinal fluid adenosine deaminase in tuberculous and non-tuberculous meningitis.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg. Cerebrospinal fluid adenosine deaminase activity: a complimentary tool in the early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis.

Cerebrospinal Fluid Res. Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid adenosine deaminase activity in HIV-seropositive subjects and its association with lactate dehydrogenase and protein levels. Biomed Pharmacother. Reiber H, Peter JB. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis: disease-related data patterns and evaluation programs.

J Neurol Sci. Evaluating the sensitivity of visual xanthochromia in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Interpretation of traumatic lumbar punctures in the setting of possible subarachnoid hemorrhage: who can be safely discharged? Cal J Emerg Med. Dosage of lactate in the cerebrospinal fluid in infectious diseases of the central nervous system.

Clin Infect Dis. Sperotto RL. Santa Maria. Tese de mestrado — Universidade Federal de Santa Maria; Bacterial meningitis — diagnosis and treatment. J Pediatr Rio J. Vermes LMS. Irani DN. Cerebrospinal fluid in clinical practice. Philadelphia: Saunder Elsevier, Wallach JB. Interpretation of diagnostic tests. Chander A, Shrestha CD. Cerebrospinal fluid adenosine deaminase levels as a diagnostic marker in tuberculous meningitis in adult Nepalese patients.

Asian Pac J Trop Dis. The possible role of cerebrospinal fluid adenosine deaminase activity in the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis in adults. Defining cerebrospinal fluid white blood cell count reference values in neonates and young infants. Cerebrospinal fluid leucocyte counts in healthy neonates. Quantitation of cerebrospinal fluid lactic acid in infectious and non-infectious neurological diseases.

Clin Chem Lab Med. J Bras Pneumol. Cerebrospinal fluid Adenosine deaminase: its evaluation as a marker for diagnosing tuberculous meningitis in paediatric patients. Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences. Early chemical diagnosis of bacterial meningitis-cerebrospinal fluid glucose, lactate, and lactate dehydrogenase compared. Cerebrospinal fluid glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and lactic dehydrogenase activities in children with neurologic disorders. J Pediatr. Reiber H.

Beta-trace protein concentration in nasal secretion: discrepancies and flaws in recent publications. Acta Neurol Scand ; Ascorbate concentration in human cerebrospinal fluid CSF and serum.

Intrathecal accumulation and CSF flow rate. Urbanits S. Cellular diagnostics of CSF. J Int Fed Clin Chem. Cerebrospinal fluid and lumbar puncture: a practical review.


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