POLYHOUSE CONSTRUCTION PDF

Polyhouse Subsidy, Cost, Profit and Project Report Let us discuss today about polyhouse subsidy, profit, cost and economics. Why most people are showing interest in polyhouse cultivation? Growing crops under controlled environment such as temperature, humidity, and fertilizers with the help of automated systems is called polyhouse cultivation. We will learn conditional factors of polyhouse farming and the future of polyhouse farming in India.

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One can make a huge profit from polyhouse farming. Greenhouse may seem a costly affair. However, governments provide subsidies.

Here is the complete details on greenhouse technology, how to construct a greenhouse and maintain it. Download Project Reports A greenhouse or polyhouse can be defined as a house or a structure made of transparent material like glass or polyethylene wherein plants are grown under well-controlled climatic conditions. The size of structure varies from small sheds to industry-sized buildings according to the purpose. Primarily, a greenhouse is a glass house whose interiors grow warmer when exposed to sunlight as the house blocks the greenhouse gas to exit.

Therefore, while it may be cold outside the temperature is survival friendly and warm for the plants growing inside. Some greenhouses using high-end technology have installed equipment like heating and cooling system, lighting, screening installations and even computerized facilities to provide optimal growth conditions for the plants.

This is done especially to reduce the risks of crop loss in greenhouse cultivation. Difference Between Greenhouse and Polyhouse Greenhouse Vs Polyhouse Greenhouse is made of some kind of transparent material to create a microclimate inside the house. Different materials like glass, wood, polyethylene etc.

Polyhouse is one type of green house where polyethylene is used as the cover. Lath house is another greenhouse technology where wood is used as the cover. Poly house is economical compared to glass house or greenhouse but the later is more durable than polyhouse. Capsicum in greenhouse farming in India Site Selection for Greenhouse Construction In its early years, the aim of a greenhouse was to grow species that require heat in colder regions.

It was easier to control climatic factors like temperature and moisture level inside a greenhouse and protect the plants from the harsh external cold winds. In India, the following points are to be considered for selecting the place to set up a poly greenhouse: Water Logging The site must be a well-drained area and not a place that has water logging issues. Water logging can cause potential harm to the crops especially in areas with heavy rainfall and floods.

Pollution The greenhouse must not be built near industrial units. This is to protect the crops from possible pollution effects. Accessibility Although it should not be placed very near the roads, yet, they must be easily accessible through various modes of transport.

Types of Greenhouse Greenhouses being structures for facilitating a controlled cultivation system in greenhouse farming, the structure must allow light penetration and maximum coverage.

Hence they are semi-circular shaped structures made of transparent materials like glass, polyethylene and other transparent materials. Apart from controlling temperature other objectives of greenhouse farming are maintaining the right carbon dioxide levels, humidity, water, controlling pests and providing plant nutrients. Greenhouse classification is based on different parameters like cost, suitability, structure type, glazing type, number of spans and environmental control.

The light intensity is controlled using nets. For the covering usually polyethylene UV films are used. Simple techniques like side wall opening or closing is used for controlling temperature during summer and winter.

They serve as good shelters for rain. This type of structure does not have high technology facilities. It is mainly used in places with cold climatic conditions. Marginal farmers with small land holdings can take the benefits of greenhouse farming using low cost bamboo greenhouse.

Semi-Automatic Greenhouse Some greenhouses are partially controlled with minimum investment conditions.

Pipes made of galvanized iron are used for the construction and the canopy is held together with the help of screws. It is lodged firmly in the ground to withstand the wind. There are exhaust fans with thermostat system to control the temperature. There are also cooling pads and arrangements for misting to maintain humidity levels. Such structures are suitable for areas with dry and composite climate. This type is the most popular greenhouse farming in India. High-End Greenhouse Hydroponic system in polyhouse farming These greenhouse structures are installed with devices to control temperature moisture, humidity and other environmental parameters.

This type of greenhouse is used for very high value crops and hydroponics in commercial greenhouse farming. Greenhouse Based on Glazing This classification is based on the type of material used for covering the structure. They maybe: Fiberglass reinforced plastic glazing Glass glazing Plastic Film The material used for fiberglass reinforced plastic glazing can be plain sheet or corrugated sheet.

The plastic films used can be silpaulin or UV stabilized low density polyethylene. This is the most popular covering material for greenhouse farming in India. However, they do not have any additional provisions to control the environment in polyhouse farming. Environmentally Controlled Polyhouse- This type of greenhouse is basically constructed for off-season production.

Factors like light, temperature, carbon dioxide levels, humidity, etc. Shade Houses Shade house Shade houses are yet another type of greenhouse used in plant production during summers or in warm climate areas. They are commonly used for growing ornamental flowers like Azalea, Hydrangea, Orchids, fruit and vegetable nurseries etc. Shade nets made of polypropylene of different colors like black, white and green are used.

However, black is the most preferred one since it retains the outdoor heat inside the structure. Download Project Reports Design of Greenhouse A greenhouse is designed based on environmental conditions of the site and those required for plant growth in polyhouse farming.

Taking into consideration the Indian climatic conditions, multi-span, Quonset type greenhouse is the most preferred. It is economical and can be easily constructed. For naturally ventilated greenhouses low density polyethylene films stabilized under UV is used. Some people also use films having a thickness of microns. Screws and nails are not used since the films may get torn off.

Instead, they are fastened using T-lock or L-lock. While designing the greenhouse it should be remembered that the structure must bear different types of loads like: Dead Load- It is the weight of all the equipment fixed on the frame such as water pipes, service equipment, heating and cooling systems, cladding and the weight of permanent constructions.

Live Load- A greenhouse is devised to carry a maximum weight of 15 Kg per square meter. In addition, the roof members must be capable of supporting shelves, hanging baskets, people, etc. Wind Load- The structure must have the capacity to withstand 50Kg per square meter of wind pressure. Snow Load- This is considered in areas having snowfall. In case of snow fall, the structure must be able to bear all the different loads in addition to the snow load.

A polyhouse under construction Orientation of Greenhouse The orientation of greenhouse depends on the shadow movement, shading effect, type of temperature control, wind direction and latitude.

In case of other greenhouses nearby, the orientation should be such that its shadow does not fall on other greenhouses. For this purpose, they are oriented in an East to West direction. Dimensions To decide the dimensions, a host of factors like size of the greenhouse, wind effects, height, spacing between the greenhouses and its structural design must be considered. Wind Effects The length of the greenhouse must be perpendicular to the direction of the wind.

In case of fan and pad arrangement, the direction of natural wind must be the same as that of the air blown by the fan. Size of Polyhouse A bigger greenhouse would have more temperature build-up especially if there is no proper ventilation.

In case of naturally ventilated greenhouse, the length must not exceed 60m. Spacing between Greenhouses There should be a distance of m between two greenhouses.

This is to avoid shadow from falling on each other. In addition, the exhaust from one greenhouse must not enter the other greenhouse. Height A 50m X 50m greenhouse can attain a maximum height of 5m. A taller greenhouse would have larger wind load for the glazing and structure. Structural Design The structure of the greenhouse must be able to bear all the different loads. Hence, the column, foundation and truss must be designed accordingly. Cladding Materials for Greenhouse Farming Cladding is nothing but covering of the greenhouse.

There are different materials used for cladding a greenhouse such as polycarbonate, polyethylene, fiberglass, UV resistant polyethylene films and Tedlar coated fiberglass. Double strength glass and polycarbonate have a durability of 50 years and require very low maintenance. Polyethylene films require high amount of maintenance but are durable for only few years. Fiberglass is durable for seven years while Tedlar coated fiberglass can sustain upto 15 years.

Components of Greenhouse The different components of a greenhouse are Roof- It is the transparent overhead cover of the greenhouse. Gable- The wall of the greenhouse is called gable which is transparent. Gutters- Gutters collect and drain out the snow and rain water that is gathered between the spans. Column- It is vertical structure that carries the greenhouse.

Ridge- It is the horizontal section on top of the roof. Bracings- Bracings are erected to support the structure against wind.

Arches- They are the structures that support the covering materials. Foundation Pipe- Foundation pipes connect the structure to the ground. Containers for Greenhouse Farming Different types of containers are used in a greenhouse for different purposes like growing plants under controlled climatic conditions, raising the seedlings, growing plants for hybrid seed production and for growing ornamental plants in pots.

Using containers increase capacity of the production while reducing the crop time in polyhouse farming. Containers ensure uniform growth of plants and minimum transplantation shock.

In addition, it eases monitoring of plants and plant nutrition. Here is a table with different types of containers used in polyhouse farming along with their advantages and disadvantages: Types of Containers.

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One can make a huge profit from polyhouse farming. Greenhouse may seem a costly affair. However, governments provide subsidies. Here is the complete details on greenhouse technology, how to construct a greenhouse and maintain it.

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We have over 50 years experience of polyhouse manufacture and construction, offering a complete range of polyhouses from portable temporary tunnels to multispans and more recently, hybrid polytunnels. This website will enable you to identify and calculate the price of your project. Please select from the options below for further information about our polyhouses. During this time many new ideas have emerged both in innovative design and materials. What has always impressed me is how this company has been actively involved in designing and producing high quality structures, manufactured to exacting standards.

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