AN INTRODUCTION TO THEORIES OF PERSONALITY HERGENHAHN & OLSON PDF

Many individuals are seriously addicted to online pornography, physical and mental health, and social functions. Therefore, the exploration of the mechanism of online pornography addiction is of great significance. The article expounds from three aspects: individual susceptibility factors, strengthening mechanisms and their neural mechanisms. It was found that some individuals became susceptible because of their unique personality, cognition, and physiological and psychological factors. The long-term experience of online pornography has led to the sensitization of such people to online pornography-related clues, which has led to a growing sense of craving, compulsive use of online pornography under the dual factors of temptation and functional impairment.

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Many individuals are seriously addicted to online pornography, physical and mental health, and social functions. Therefore, the exploration of the mechanism of online pornography addiction is of great significance. The article expounds from three aspects: individual susceptibility factors, strengthening mechanisms and their neural mechanisms.

It was found that some individuals became susceptible because of their unique personality, cognition, and physiological and psychological factors. The long-term experience of online pornography has led to the sensitization of such people to online pornography-related clues, which has led to a growing sense of craving, compulsive use of online pornography under the dual factors of temptation and functional impairment.

The sense of satisfaction gained from it is getting weaker and weaker, so more and more online pornography is needed to maintain the previous emotional state and become addicted. Future research should explore the factors of genetic and stress susceptibility and external predisposing factors in individual susceptibility factors, and explore the mechanism of cyber pornography addiction in different susceptible populations, and provide reference for clinical prevention and treatment.

Cybersex is extremely popular among whole population. A lot of people who consume excess cybersex report social problems and mental distress, this renders studies on cybersex addiction practically significant. Here we elucidate initiation and development of cybersex addiction from the perspective of individual vulnerabilities, reinforcement mechanism And neural mechanism. It turns out some people are vulnerable to cybersex addiction because of specific personalities, cognitions and biopsychological constitutions.

Personalities include personal traits tightly associated with cybersex addiction such as narcissism, sexual sensation seeking, sexual excitability, dysfunction use of sex and other Common personality disorders like nervousness, low self-esteem, etc. Cognitions consist of problematic thoughts about the self, problematic thoughts about the world and cybersex-related cognitive bias. Biopsychological constitution refers to biological factors, early childhood experiences and psycho-pathologies like depression, anxiety, etc.

Initiation and development of cybersex addiction have two stages with classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Firstly, individuals use cybersex occasionally out of entertainment and curiosity. On this stage, use of internet devices is paired with sexual arousal and The results in classical conditioning, further leads to sensitization of cybersex-related cues which trigger intense craving. Individual vulnerabilities also facilitate sensitization of cybersex-related cues.

On the second stage, individuals make use of cybersex frequently to satisfy their sexual desires or During this process, cybersex-related cognitive bias like positive expectation of cybersex and coping mechanism like using it to deal with negative emotions are positively reinforced, those personal traits associated with cybersex addiction such as narcissism, sexual sensation seeking, sexual excitability, dysfunction Use of sex are also Positively reinforced, while common personality disorders like nervousness, low self-esteem and psychopathologies like depression, anxiety are negatively reinforced.

Interaction of executive function deficits and intense craving promotes development and maintenance of cybersex addiction. Researches using electrophysiological and brain imaging tools mainly to study cybersex addiction found that cybersex addicts may develop more and more robust craving for cybersex when facing cybersex-related cues, but they feel less and less pleasant when using it. Studies provide evidence for intense craving triggered by cybersex-related cues and impaired executive function.

Once they reduce cybersex use or just quit it, they would suffer from a series of adverse effects like depression, anxiety, erection dysfunction, lack of sexual arousal. After reviewing studies which concentrate on cybersex, it was found that some directions of this field warrant more attention in the future. Important individual vulnerabilities like genetics and stress vulnerability should be Between the internal factors, external factors which promote development of cybersex addiction like surrounding environment, social culture should also be addressed.

Lastly, previous studies primary focus on heterosexual male cybersex addicts while ignoring other groups of people who are likely to cybersex addiction like heterosexual female cybersex addicts, homosexual addicts, people with sexual dysfunction, which should be further studied to provide implications for clinical intervention and treatment.

The rapid development and comprehensive coverage of the Internet has greatly promoted pornography. The Internet provides people with an opportunity to continuously browse for novelty pornography. Compared to pornography that has been repeatedly viewed, when a man sees a new porn, his sexual excitement and penile erection are significantly increased.

Once stopped or reduced the use of online pornography, physical and psychological serious discomfort can occur Cavaglion, ; Griffiths, In recent years, studies have found that 4.

From these two data, we can speculate that due to the rapid development of the network, the number of people suffering from CA will continue to increase in the future. To this end, exploring the mechanism of CA is extremely urgent for the prevention and treatment of CA. Previous studies have mainly focused on the use of online pornography in the crowd. CA has had a heated discussion on the negative effects of individual sexuality, sexual behavior, sexual function, marriage, family, work, etc.

In this paper, through the combing of relevant empirical research and theoretical models, the occurrence and development of CA are discussed from three aspects: individual susceptibility factors, strengthening mechanism and neural mechanism.

Finally, the prospect of future research is put forward. Individual susceptibility factors of online porn addiction 2. The former includes traits such as narcissistic personality, sexual sensation seeking, sexual excitability, and dysfunctional use of sex. The latter refers to personality traits such as neuroticism and low self-esteem. Milam found that online pornography time was positively correlated with individual narcissism.

The formation of narcissistic personality may be related to the unfortunate childhood growth of individuals such as parental care, which makes them emotionally neglected and even sexually abused Milam, Perry and Accordino et al. Brand et al. Individuals with sexual abuse and high sexual excitement may not be able to control their own sexual behaviors, have sexual orientations to alleviate their negative emotions or reduce their tendency to stress, and when they are unable to directly engage in sexual activity, they may use online pornography.

Use to meet your own needs. In addition, individuals with traits such as neuroticism and low self-esteem may be able to get rid of their negative emotions through online pornography due to negative evaluation of themselves and lack of social support, etc.

The individuals with the general disorder personality traits mentioned above often feel lonely and self-doubt because of lack of social support, but form an unreasonable cognition of themselves and the outside world in their hearts, and think that they are not appreciated in real life.

And pay attention to turn to the network, use cyber pornography to escape from reality and seek liberation. CA tendencies tend to have high expectations for online pornography—network pornography enables them to gain sexual gratification, relieve stress, and eliminate negative emotional experiences; it is accustomed to using online pornography as a coping mechanism.

Physiological and psychological structure The physiological and psychological structure mainly includes the early childhood experience, biological factors, psychopathological factors and other inducing factors. Strengthening mechanism of online porn addiction symptoms The occurrence and development of CA symptoms can be divided into two stages: classical conditioning and operational conditioning Putnam, The former is accompanied by the gradual sensitization of clues related to online pornography.

The aforementioned individual susceptibility factors — personality Factors, cognitive factors, and physiological and psychological structures may enhance individual sensitization to online pornography-related clues Brand, Young, et al.

The interaction between clue-induced hunger and executive function of individual decline promotes the development of CA symptoms. Initially, individuals used network devices to search for and watch pornographic materials. Network devices were used as a neutral stimulus. After multiple connections with pornographic stimuli, they established a stimulus-response connection with sexual arousal to form a classic.

Laier and Pawlikowski et al. Awakening and masturbation needs. Prause and Pfaus also found that heterosexual men who browse pornographic materials more often experience stronger sexual arousal after watching pornography. In heterosexual women, compared to women who do not use online pornography, women who use online pornography consider pornographic images to be more awakened, and report more sexual arousal and masturbation after viewing pornographic images Laier , Pekal, et al.

After that, when individuals use network equipment, they are prone to sexual arousal physiological reactions. Sexual awakening further promotes individual online porn consumption. In the process of individuals using online pornography to achieve their goals, the high expectations of online pornography and this coping mechanism are being strengthened. Individual narcissistic personality, sexual sensation seeking, sexual excitement sensitivity, sexual abuse traits and other CA-related specific personality traits are positively strengthened; while psychopathological qualities such as anxiety, depression, etc.

Schiebener and Laier et al. The decline is more significant. Individuals perform competition between functions. The neural mechanism of online porn addiction The research on neural mechanism mainly found that the increase of the desire of individuals for online pornography and the decline of pleasure when using online pornography promoted the development of CA symptoms.

At the same time, the use of clues induced by online pornography and the tendency of CA to perform individual decline Evidence support. First, Steele et al. In this regard, Prause and Steele et al. The induced LPP amplitude is smaller, and this result seems to be contrary to the idea that online pornography-related clues induce a sense of craving. Actually, some scholars have pointed out that the erotic images used in the study by Prause and Steele may be an addiction in itself.

Consumer goods, not addictive clues Gola et al. Therefore, according to the Theory of Incentive-Salience Theory IST in drug addiction, as the degree of addiction deepens, the clues of addiction can induce the addicted desire of addicted individuals to become more and more addicted.

There are some similarities, and subsequent research by Gola et al. The experiment was conducted by 28 heterosexual men seeking treatment for problematic pornography use PPU and 24 heterosexual men without PPU symptoms. They were asked to complete the Incentive delay task and found The ventral striatum the area in the brain related to the reward response mechanism and motivational behavior that reflects the psychological cravings of the cyber pornography of the PPU was obtained when the subjects were presented with predictive erotic images.

A greater degree of activation, and the degree of activation of the ventral striatum is also related to the severity of the PPU and the weekly erotic use of the subject, the number of weekly masturbation; but in the presence of erotic images, the two groups of relevant brain regions There was no significant difference in activation. Kuhn and Gallinat also found that the more people who watched pornography, the more people who watch pornographic videos, the other part of the striatum that responds to sexual stimuli — the shell nucleus Left putamen The weaker the activation, the smaller the capacity of the right caudate in the striatum.

IST theory reveals an important driving force for the development of CA symptoms. When CA tends to frequently browse online pornography, repeated repeated dopamine surges keep the brain in a state of excitement. In the long run, the brain is slow and shrinking; but the temptation of the environment has made their desire for online pornography stronger and stronger.

And studies have shown that the more healthy adult males watching pornography, the worse the functional connection between the right caudate nucleus of the brain and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex DLPFC related to cognitive control. As such, the decline in cognitive control caused by frequent pornography is more likely to cause CAs to use Internet pornography. Summary and outlook In view of the universality of online pornography and the serious harm of excessive online pornography to individuals and society, the exploration of the mechanism of online pornography addiction has great practical significance.

This article describes the individual susceptibility factors, the strengthening mechanism of CA symptoms, and the neural mechanism of CA. It was found that some individuals became susceptible populations of CA because of their unique personality, cognition, and physiological and psychological factors.

On the one hand, individual susceptibility factors promote sensitization of online pornography-related clues, and on the other hand, its repeated use of online pornography to meet its own needs in turn reinforces individual susceptibility factors.

At the same time, the cravings of cravings are getting stronger and stronger. The susceptible individuals spend a lot of time searching for new and different online pornography materials under the dual factors of temptation and functional impairment. However, this satisfaction is getting weaker and weaker. In a vicious circle, they need a larger amount of novel online pornography material to meet their physiological, psychological, and sensory needs.

In order to escape these withdrawal symptoms, or due to other life stress events, individuals are deeply immersed in the abyss of online pornography and gradually lose interest in other matters of life. Through combing and summarizing the existing research, we find that some research fields related to the formation mechanism of CA have not been paid attention to by researchers, but they have important research value and can be explored in a more comprehensive and in-depth study in future research.

First, the lack of genetic and stress susceptibility in the individual susceptibility factors summarized in this paper and the study of external factors such as environmental factors that induce CA. In addition, studies have confirmed that stress susceptibility is a potential pre-factor for online game addiction.

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