Legend has it that he was either a Brahmin from Kerala or from north India; however; it is certain that Kautilya was the man who destroyed the Nanda dynasty and installed Chandragupta Maurya as the King of Magadha. The text contains fifteen books which cover numerous topics viz. The Arthashastra is written mainly in prose but also incorporates shlokas. Artha; literally wealth; is one of four supreme aims prescribed by Hindu tradition. However; it has a much wider significance and the material well-being of individuals is just a part of it. Therefore; a significant part of the Arthashastra has to do with the science of economics.
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No, says Kautilya, he who bows down to all like a crab on the banks of a river lives in despair; whoever goes with his small army to fight perishes like a man attempting to cross the sea without a boat. Hence, a weak king should either seek the protection of a powerful king or maintain himself in an impregnable fort. Invaders are of three kinds: a just conqueror, a demon-like conqueror, and a greedy conqueror.
Of these, the just conqueror is satisfied with mere obeisance. Hence, a weak king should seek his protection. Fearing his own enemies, the greedy conqueror is satisfied with what he can safely gain in land or money. Hence, a weak king should satisfy such a conqueror with wealth. The demon-like conqueror satisfies himself not merely by seizing the land, treasure, sons and wives of the conquered, but by taking the life of the latter. Hence, a weak king should keep such a conqueror at a distance by offering him land and wealth.
When any one of these is on the point of rising against a weak king, the latter should avert the invasion by making a treaty of peace, or by taking recourse to the battle of intrigue mantrayuddha , or by a treacherous fight in the battle-field. When all this mischief has been perpetrated, a messenger may be sent to the enemy, to sue for peace ; or he may make peace with the enemy without offending the latter.
If the enemy still continues the march, the weak king may sue for peace by offering more than one-fourth of his wealth and army, the payment being made after the lapse of a day and night. End of the hundred and thirty-sixth chapter from the beginning. Hence, it is not worthy of you to lend your ear to those enemies with the face of friends, to expose your real friends to trouble, to help your enemies to attain success, and to involve yourself in dangers costing life and wealth.
Fiery spies should bring about quarrels among them when one or two of them have fallen in love. In the affray that ensues they should prevail upon the defeated party to migrate elsewhere or to proceed to help the master of the spies in the invasion undertaken by the latter.
Or to those who have fallen in love, spies, under the guise of ascetics, may administer poison under the plea that the medical drugs given to them are capable of securing the object of love. A spy, under the guise of a merchant, may, under the plea of winning the love of an immediate maid-servant of the beautiful queen of the enemy , shower wealth upon her and then give her up.
A spy in the service of the merchant may give to another spy, employed as a servant of the maid-servant, some medical drug, telling the latter that in order to regain the love of the merchant , the drug may be applied to the person of the merchant by the maid-servant.
On her attaining success the maid-servant may inform the queen that the same drug may be applied to the person of the king to secure his love , and then change the drug for poison. A spy under the guise of a merchant may, by some contrivance or other, take possession of that wealth and inform the minister of the readiness of all the preparations for the expedition. Thus by the employment of one, two, or three of the strategic means, the ministers of each of the combined enemies may be induced to set out on the expedition and thus to be away from the inimical kings.
Do not hoard up your wealth and thereby create enemies; if so, you will all be put to death. Then other spies may spread the news that the officer in charge of the waste lands destroys the people and plunders them. Addressing the servants of the collector-general in the centre of the village at night, fiery spies may say: "Thus will be treated those who subject the people to unjust oppression.
Spies may also tell those who have been banished from the country: "This is just what we foretold; for personal safety, you may go elsewhere. So make attempts to put him down. Spies may also tell those who have been granted their request by the king the enemy that the officer in charge of waste lands has been told by the king: "Such and such persons have demanded their due from me; I have granted them all their requests in order to gain their confidence.
But they are conspiring with my enemy. So make attempts to put them down. Spies may also tell those who do not demand their due from the king that the officer in charge of waste lands has been told: "Such and such persons do not demand their due from me.
What else can be the reason than their suspicion about my knowledge of their guilt? This explains the treatment of partisans. When he comes to believe this, some treacherous persons may be represented as the messengers of the enemy, specifying as "this is that.
If one of the sons of the commander-in-chief is living near or inside the fort, a spy may tell him: "You are the most worthy son; still you are neglected; why are you indifferent? Seize your position by force; otherwise the heir-apparent will destroy you. I am the best man to be relied upon. End of the hundred and thirty-eighth chapter from the beginning. Spies, disguised as experts in trading in cooked flesh, cooked rice, liquor, and cakes, may vie with each other in proclaiming in public the sale of a fresh supply of their special articles at cheap price and may sell the articles mixed with poison to the attracted customers of the enemy.
Women and children may receive in their poisoned vessels, liquor, milk, curd, ghee, or oil from traders in those articles, and pour those fluids back into the vessels of the traders, saying that at a specified rate the whole may be sold to them. Spies, disguised as merchants, may purchase the above articles, and may so contrive that servants, attending upon the elephants and horses of the enemy, may make use of the same articles in giving rations and grass to those animals.
Spies, under the garb of servants, may sell poisoned grass and water. Secret spies may slay from behind the chiefs of infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants, or they may set fire to the chief residences of the enemy. Or occupying an advantageous position, they may slay the enemy when he is marching in a narrow path passable by a single man, or on a mountain, or near the trunk of a tree, or under the branches of a banian tree, or in water; or they may cause him to be carried off by the force of a current of water let off by the destruction of a dam across a river, or of a lake or pond; or they may destroy him by means of an explosive fire or poisonous snake when he has entrenched himself in a fort, in a desert, in a forest, or in a valley.
He should be destroyed with fire when he is under a thicket; with smoke when he is in a desert; with poison when he is in a comfortable place; with crocodile and other cruel beasts when he is in water; or they may slay him when he is going out of his burning house. End of the hundred and thirty-ninth chapter from the beginning. Measures to obstruct the movements of the enemy are explained in the chapter, "The Conduct of a Conquered King.
A pretending friend may send information to an outsider: "Grains, oil and jaggery and salt stored in the fort of the enemy have been exhausted; a fresh supply of them is expected to reach the fort at such and such a place and time; seize it by force. This explains the seizure of all kinds of supply. Having made peace with the conqueror, he may give the conqueror part of the gold promised and the rest gradually.
Or if his resources are exhausted, he may run away abandoning his fort; he may escape through a tunnel or through a hole newly made or by breaking the parapet. On such occasions, they should make use of the signs indicative of the purpose of their society. End of the hundred and fortieth chapter from the beginning. Translated by R. Bangalore: Government Press, ,
Kautilya Arthashastra Book XII : Concerning a Powerful Enemy
No, says Kautilya, he who bows down to all like a crab on the banks of a river lives in despair; whoever goes with his small army to fight perishes like a man attempting to cross the sea without a boat. Hence, a weak king should either seek the protection of a powerful king or maintain himself in an impregnable fort. Invaders are of three kinds: a just conqueror, a demon-like conqueror, and a greedy conqueror. Of these, the just conqueror is satisfied with mere obeisance. Hence, a weak king should seek his protection. Fearing his own enemies, the greedy conqueror is satisfied with what he can safely gain in land or money.
KAUTILYA ARTHASHASTRA IN BENGALI PDF
Kazizuru However, it should kautillya borne in mind that the Arthasastra is solely concerned arthasshastra theories rather than the actual practice of the time. Arthashastra an ancient Indian treatise known for its contents on politics and state craft, administration, financial system, and many other aspects of social and religious life. The law of the unity of opposites is the fundamental law Kautilya arthashastra pdf in bengali. Veh sarvshreshth arthshastri ke saath-saath mahaan raajneetigya evam katuneetigya the.
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